300 million migrant workers’ city and township – Sohu news baxia

300 million migrant workers’ "city" and "township" – Sohu news [Spring Festival observation depth] 300 million migrant workers’ "city" and "township" – Perspective of the new changes in the Spring Festival in 2016 three "this year is the first time we drove home."." In the 26th day of the twelfth month of the Chinese lunar calendar, Zhai Xijuan couple opened a trip home. Two people from Sichuan, Bazhong to work in Beijing for more than 10 years, and finally bought a Geely in 2015. All the way, they’ll be home in 16 hours. In February 4th, more than 100 outstanding migrant workers from Guizhou embarked on the charter flights of Fu FU6511 flights at Fuzhou Changle Airport, and embarked on a return journey to Guizhou, Guiyang. Xinhua News Agency reporter Wei Peiquan took more than 30 years, the Spring Festival army increased from 100 million passengers to 2 billion 910 million people this year, the number of migrant workers in China increased to more than 300 million people. As the largest group during the Spring Festival, the migration of migrant workers reflects the social structure of China’s two yuan structure and urbanization. The 8th day of the first month of the Chinese lunar calendar "regional disparity migration" behind, Mrs. Zhai Xijuan will return to Beijing. Although Bazhong’s home environment is more comfortable, Zhai Xijuan is still planning to work hard in Beijing for another two years. The monthly income of the couple is more than 6000 yuan, the monthly rent of the basement is 800 yuan, and it can save more than 4000 yuan per month. Compared to the income level of the old home, this kind of income is considerable. From the 2015 statistics, the per capita income of urban and rural residents of Shanghai were 52962 yuan and 23205 yuan, Beijing 52859 yuan and 20569 yuan, while the per capita income gap and the Midwest larger — Sichuan urban and rural residents were 26205 yuan and 10247 yuan, this group of data in Gansu was 23000 yuan and 6900 yuan. It is the great gap between regions and cities and towns that makes population migration inevitable. According to the 2010 census data, Sichuan has a population of 20 million 914 thousand, accounting for 26% of the total population of the province. From migrant workers to move to the point of view, although the influx of North Canton population growth is narrowing, but the first tier cities are still the most popular. According to the data from unfamiliar streets, the top 10 provinces in the Spring Festival are Guangdong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Beijing, Shandong, Shanghai, Sichuan, Fujian, Yunnan and Henan provinces. The Pearl River Delta is still the most attractive area for migrant workers as a large-scale labor intensive industry, coupled with the path dependence of previous migration. The "semi urbanization" of pendulum style life, "home in the city, home in the countryside" – is the dream of many migrant workers. During the "12th Five-Year" period, China’s urbanization has been rapidly promoted, the urbanization rate has increased by 1.23 percentage points annually, and the urban population has increased by 20 million per year. A basement of more than 10 square meters, monthly rent amounted to 800 yuan, compared to Zhai Xijuan’s income of more than 3000 yuan a month, is not a small overhead. In 2015, the average price of commercial housing in Beijing was close to 30 thousand yuan square meters. "Buy a house in Beijing, I dare not think."." Zhai Xijuan said. Data show that the monthly average income of migrant workers in the country is in 2011

3亿农民工的“城”与“乡”-搜狐新闻  【春运观察?深度】   3亿农民工的“城”与“乡”   ――透视2016年春运新变化之三   “今年是我们第一次开车回家。”农历腊月二十六,翟喜娟夫妇开启了回乡之旅。   两人从四川巴中来北京务工10余年,2015年终于买上了一辆吉利。一路高速,他们16个小时就能到家。   2月4日,100多名贵州籍优秀外来务工者在福州长乐机场搭乘福航FU6511包机航班,踏上飞往贵州贵阳的返乡旅程。新华社记者魏培全摄   30多年来,春运大军从1亿人次增长到今年的29.1亿人次,中国农民工数量增长到3亿多人。作为春运中最大的群体,农民工的迁徙折射出中国社会的二元结构和城镇化带来的社会之变。   “大迁徙”背后的地区差距   农历正月初八,翟喜娟夫妇又将回到北京。尽管巴中老家的生活环境更加安逸,但翟喜娟仍打算在北京再打拼两年。夫妇俩每月总收入超过6000元,除去地下室的月租金800元,每月能存下4000多元。相比老家的收入水平,这样的收入是可观的。   从2015年的统计数据看,上海城乡居民人均收入分别为52962元和23205元,北京为52859元和20569元,而中西部地区与之差距较大――四川城乡居民人均收入分别为26205元和10247元,甘肃的这一组数据为23000元和6900元。   正是地区、城乡间的巨大差距,让人口迁徙成为必然。2010年人口普查数据显示,四川外出人口达2091.4万人,占全省总人口的26%。   从农民工迁入地看,虽然流入北上广人口的增幅正在收窄,但一线大城市依然最热门。根据陌陌数据,今年春运出发省份前10位分别是:广东省、浙江省、江苏省、北京市、山东省、上海市、四川省、福建省、云南省、河南省。作为大规模劳动密集型产业地区,加之以往迁徙的路径依赖,珠三角依然是对务工人员最有吸引力的地区。   钟摆式生活的“半城镇化”   “城里有家,乡下有老家”――这是很多进城务工人员的梦想。“十二五”期间,我国城镇化快速推进,城镇化率年均提高1.23个百分点,每年城镇人口增加2000万人。   一间10余平方米的地下室,月租金达800元,相比翟喜娟一个月3000多元的收入,是一笔不小的开销。2015年,北京商品房成交均价接近3万元 平方米。“在北京买房,我不敢想。”翟喜娟说。   数据显示,全国外出农民工月均收入2011年为2049元,2012年末为2290元,2013年为2609元,2014年为2864元,尽管呈逐年增长态势,但城市里房租、教育、医疗等方面的压力仍让务工人员感到城与乡之间的鸿沟。   2015年,我国城镇化率达56.1%,城镇常住人口达7.7亿。《国家新型城镇化规划(2014―2020年)》提出,以人的城镇化为核心,到2020年常住人口城镇化率达60%左右,户籍人口城镇化率达45%左右,努力实现1亿农业转移人口和其他常住人口在城镇落户。   尽管各地采取了多项措施保障农民工权益,但教育、医疗、养老等公共服务的差距短期内仍难以弥合。数亿进城打工的农民“钟摆”于城与乡之间,春运则是钟摆式生活的缩影。户籍制度和其背后附着的社会保障制度成为农民工市民化的重要障碍,实现“人的城镇化”,关键在于织牢社会保障网、加快完善公共服务体系。   “调结构”催生的就近务工热   作为一对双胞胎的母亲,翟喜娟打算两年后回老家:“孩子快上学了,我们以后还是在老家附近找活儿干。虽然挣得少点儿,但方便照顾老人和孩子。”   在大城市打几年工再回老家,这样的务工人员数量在增加。随着国家加快推进产业结构调整和统筹区域经济协调发展战略的持续推进,内陆省份经济发展速度不断加快,就业吸引力明显提高,农民工就近务工日益普遍。根据百度大数据分析,近两年春节,西部城市的热度增加了很多。以重庆为例,泸州、自贡、南充等地到重庆的迁徙较为密集。   按照新型城镇化的要求,未来要解决“三个1亿人”的问题――促进约1亿农业转移人口落户城镇,改造约1亿人居住的城镇棚户区和城中村,引导约1亿人在中西部地区就近城镇化。就近就业将成为缓解春运难的重要因素。   “一定要看到中西部农村转移劳动力就近就业的重要意义。”国务院参事室特约研究员姚景源指出,“当中西部若干个集聚了生活、工作功能的小城镇不断涌现,我国的经济社会发展将迎来新的增长点。”来自国家发改委的数据显示,目前我国城区人口100万以上的城市有140多个,镇区人口在10万人以上的特大镇有230多个,5万人口以上的镇有870多个。这些特大镇和镇将来可能成长为新生的中小城市,随之会吸引更多的务工人员。   相关专家指出,如果这种产业结构、区域结构、城乡结构的调整能够持续下去,春运期间跨地区、长距离的出行将逐步减少,“春运难”也能得到一定程度的缓解。如果农民工能真正融入城市,享受更好的医疗、就业、养老保障,真正成为市民,也将最大限度地减少春运客流。解决“春运难”的关键,不在“春运”本身,而在于“调结构”的勇气和决心。   (光明日报记者 冯蕾 鲁元珍 钟超)相关的主题文章: